Potato is actually both consumed once boiling or because processed food like as French fries, chips, dried and you may canned carrots

Undesirable browning colour in the frying process is still a matter of concern due to health aspects, especially its carcinogenicity. Indeed, acrylamide, a toxin formed during potato frying process, is known as a potential carcinogen (Friedman, 2003 ) and mutagen (Segerback et al., 1995 ). Consequently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) had classified acrylamide in Class 2A as a probable human carcinogen (IARC, 1994 ). The formation of acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich foods generally occurs, when heated Adventure dating app at high temperatures (over 120°C) under limited humid conditions. It is mainly due to a Maillard reaction which involves reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and an amino acid asparagine (most abundant amino acid in potato). It is important to note that sucrose can be hydrolyzed through acid, enzymatic or thermal treatment acting as a precursor for the formation of reducing sugars (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2009 ; Stadler et al., 2002 ). Reducing sugars are considered to be a limiting factor for acrylamide formation despite the presence of amino acid precursor free asparagine, during the processing of potato products in excess of heat. In order to restrict the formation of acrylamide to low levels, the content of reducing sugars should not exceed 100 mg/100 g FW (Kumar et al.). Moreover, small size tuber (<50-mm size) contains more acrylamide content (322 ppb) because of a high amount of reducing sugar as compared to the large size tubers (>50-mm size) which possess 148 ppb (Po et al., 2018 ).

Though it is actually low as compared to maize and you can kidney beans, they delivered even more proteins per device planting town when compared with cereals

As the basic accounts throughout the acrylamide when you look at the dining within the 2002 (Swedish National Dining Administration, 2002 ), the brand new scientific area mobilized and you can already been significant operate to minimize so it mutagen because of the between the eating community to grow mitigation steps. You to approach will be to produce and use SNP-created molecular indicators for the band of potato types which have low cutting sugar or sucrose and 100 % free asparagine levels on a giant-measure potato breeding programme (Fischer ainsi que al., 2013 ; Li et al., 2013 ; Schreiber ainsi que al., 2014 ). Molecular indicators bring an invaluable possible opportunity to accelerate selection for bush breeders to improve brand new potato cultivars with best running top quality (minimal reducing glucose and 100 % free asparagine, higher lifeless count blogs (DMC), higher specific-gravity and you will starch content). Such faculties is polygenic, very GWAS considering high-density genome-broad markers was successful to own dissecting such advanced characteristics inside the potato.

The fresh protein blogs of potato ranged anywhere between step one and you will dos.95 grams/a hundred grams towards the fresh weight basis. Additionally, potato healthy protein is recognized as quality courtesy the newest visibility out-of methionine, lysine, tryptophan and you can threonine (Lutaladio & Castaldi, 2009 ).

Tuber plus can add up steroidal glycoalkaloids (?-chaconine and you may ?-solanine with their aglycone derivatives such as for instance solasodine and you can solanidine) which might be essential bush resistance to pathogens and insects but toxic to human beings (Friedman mais aussi al

Potatoes also contain secondary metabolites such as carotenoids (especially xanthophylls) and anthocyanins, which are known as dietary antioxidants and may play major roles in preventing human diseases related to ageing, cancer, obesity and heart attack, which benefits health. The carotenoids (varied from yellow to orange colours) and anthocyanins (red and purple colours) are the two most valuable colouring pigments in potato. Carotenoid amounts and types in tubers exhibit a large variation and are positively correlated with tuber peel and the flesh colour (de Haan Et Al., 2009 ; Sulli et al., 2017 ). The carotenoid contents of white flesh potatoes are generally low (<100 ?g/100 g fresh weight), contrasting to higher amounts in the yellow-fleshed varieties (about 560 ?g/100 g FW; Nesterenko & Sink, 2003 ). A diploid germplasm of Solanum showed carotenoid concentrations of more than 2,000 ?g/100 g FW with intense yellow to near orange flesh colour. The primary tuber carotenoids in potato are lutein, zeaxanthin and violaxanthin, although some studies (Andre et al., 2007 ; Bonierbale et al., 2009 ) have also reported the presence of beta-carotene (precursor of provitamin A activity). The relative content of ?-carotene in cv. 'Agria' (yellow flesh) represented 2% of total carotenoids (Lachman et al., 2016 ). White, yellow and orange tuber flesh colours are mainly due to the presence of carotenoids (xanthophylls and beta-carotene; Van Eck, 2007 ). Moreover, antioxidant activity and various phenolic contents are also associated with tuber skin and flesh colour. It is a wrong perception that tuber flesh colour is associated with starch content. In fact, the change in flesh colour of tuber depends on the concentration of carotenoids, not on the starch content. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the SNP markers associated with tuber flesh/skin colour, carotenoids and starch for genetic gains in potato keeping in view the consumer preferability (Ah-hen et al., 2012 ). , 2005 ).

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