According to Egyptian facts matchmaking towards the fourteen th 100 years B

An Arabian Group

The latest Midianites were a Proto-Arabian group; their residence feet was in Arabia and they are regarding Ishmaelites. The publication regarding Judges states that it clearly in the facts out-of Gideon, exactly who makes the pursuing the consult of Israelites immediately after defeating the latest Midianites:

We see evidence of the partnership ranging from Midianites and you may Ishmaelites just like the really with respect to names. For instance, Moses dad-in-law Jethro otherwise Jether (Exod 4:17) provides the same title since the Davids aunt-in-legislation (husband from Davids cousin Abigail), Jether new Ishmaelite (step one Chron 2:17).

The Liven Trading

For the Iron Years and you will later on, the new Midianites, since an enthusiastic Arabian tribe, was a portion of the spruce trade. They might travelling out of Arabia and you will transit Israel on their means to fix the fresh new Mediterranean coast and you may/or Egypt. That is reflected throughout the biblical tale out of Joseph, and this means Midianite and you can Ishmaelite investors heading to Egypt with herbs and slaves:

In this facts, the brand new dealers had first headed north, possibly to help you trade with the Arameans, and have been moving southern through the Jezreel area into Thru Maris, which may bring him or her with the Egypt. Whilst the tale is decided throughout the 2nd millennium B.C.Age., anachronistic provides such camels demonstrate that it had been printed in the original millennium B.C.Elizabeth.

The fresh new good partnership between these east Arabian tribes while the spice route is mirrored throughout the term the new Bible (Gen twenty five:1-2) offers the eponymous mother, Qeturah (?????), a reputation associated with the fresh new Hebrew phrase for incense, qetoret (?????).

In short, the brand new Midianites have been an enthusiastic Arabian tribe working in metallurgy and the liven change, whoever legs was in the fresh new northeast of your own Arabian Peninsula, but whoever come to out of settlement try far large, with purse living in brand new southwestern Sinai Peninsula, the latest south Transjordan, and Aravah (the fresh desert part of the southeastern Negev), probably from the copper veins around.

The new Shaswe-Property YHWA

C.Elizabeth., we know that Midianites were not the only ethnic communities way of living which these components. Regarding the geographic list when you look at the Amunhotep IIIs Soleb Nubian temple, the people of the Aravah additionally the south Transjordan are known as Shaswe (otherwise Shasu), an universal label definition something similar to “nomadic people.”

The term shaswe, s?sw ( ) is written following the Egyptian determinative to have “land” t? ( ), exhibiting that the Egyptian text message was detailing various other geographical components populated because of the some shaswe. An area listed is named Nomad-residential property Seir, that’s identical for the Mount Seir part when you look at the Edom. The next identity regarding record, and therefore nearby otherwise contiguous with Seir, try Nomad-homes Yehwa, yhw?(w) ( ). The latest enunciation for the name’s unsure, because the such as Hebrew, hieroglyphics do not tend to be vowels, nevertheless title seems to be about the name out-of the newest Israelite deity, YHWH, whoever direct old pronunciation is additionally not familiar.

A great Deity and you will an area

On the checklist, Yehwa is the title out-of a secure. Just as one nomadic classification lived in a land called Seir, various other lived in a land called Yehwa. But in antiquity, a reputation you will be both an excellent toponym and an excellent theonym. The name Assyria (Assur) portrays so it demonstrably: it is both identity out-of Assyrias head goddess as well as its old capital area. In the course of time, what’s more, it became title of the kingdom. Other analogy will be the Greek deity off facts, Athena, exactly who first started just like the patron goddess from Athens.

YHWH Comes from the fresh Edomite South

Biblical evidence means that YHWH comes from the brand new the southern area of, possibly in the mountains off Edom or even next southern inside Midian or beyond. This is exactly instance obvious within the about three very old biblical poems:

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